A leading centre for advanced rehabilitation for those suffering from brain injury​



Have you sustained a head injury and are no longer able to work, go to school or even complete simple daily activities?  


Are headaches, fatigue, dizziness, poor concentration and short-term memory, foggy brain, light and sound sensitivity, irritability, emotionality, difficulty reading, watching television or using a computer holding you back from the life you once had?


The diverse symptoms associated with this injury are a reflection of the way the human brain moves about the skull damaging different areas during trauma.  


Concussions / mild traumatic brain injuries are tremendously complex.  As such it is important to know that when an individual sustains a head injury the physiological, vestibulo-ocular and cervicogenic components must be considered.  

The PHYSIOLOGIC component refers to injury at the cellular (neuron) level.  Symptoms generally involve fatigue and headaches with cognitive and/or physical activity, brain fog, nausea, light and sound sensitivity, dizziness and poor concentration.


The VESTIBULO-OCULAR component refers to involvement of the visual and balance system.  Growing evidence in the research demonstrates the importance of evaluating concussions/mild traumatic brain injury using these biomarkers.  Symptoms can include blurred or double vision, difficulty with tracking moving objects and difficulty with reading.


The CERVICOGENIC component refers to damage to structures of the neck and how they contribute to symptoms which include neck pain and headaches.


NB: It is imperative that all three components be addressed if the chance for a good outcome from care is expected.  


Although there may be some similarities between individuals who have sustained a concussion, no two are identical







 1.  Tyler C.W. et al   Consequence of traumatic brain injury for human vergence dynamics.  Frontiers in Neurology, Feb. 2015, Vol. 5, Article 282.2.  Carrick F.R. et al   Evaluation of the effectiveness of a novel brain and vestibular rehabilitation treatment modality in PTSD patients who have suffered combat-related traumatic brain injuries.  Frontiers in Public Health, Feb. 2015 Vol. 3 Article 15.3.   Ventura R.E. et al   Diagnostic tests for concussion:  is vision part of the puzzle?  Journal of Neuro-Opthalmology 2015; 35:73-81.4.  Mullen S.J. et al   Saccadic eye movements in mild traumatic brain injury.  A pilot study.  Can J Neurol Sci 2014; 41:58-655.  Pearson, B.C.  Saccadometry:  the possible application of latency distribution measurement for monitoring concussion.  Br J Sports Med 2007; 41:610-6126.  Lynall, R.C. et al   Concussion research:  new horizons.  The Lancet vol 14 January 2015.